Protesters called for political reforms and the reinstatement of civil rights, as well as an end to the state of emergency which had been in place since The U. On 20 June, in response to the demands of protesters and foreign pressure, Assad promised a national dialogue involving movement toward reform, new parliamentary electionsand greater freedoms.
He also urged refugees to return home from Turkey, while assuring them amnesty and blaming all unrest on a small number of saboteurs. In JulyU. In August, the cartoonist Ali Farzata critic of Assad's government, was attacked. Relatives of the humourist told media outlets that the attackers threatened to break Farzat's bones as a warning for him to stop drawing cartoons of government officials, particularly Assad.
Farzat was hospitalised with fractures in both hands and blunt force trauma to the head. Since OctoberRussia, as a permanent member of the UN Security Councilrepeatedly vetoed Western-sponsored draft resolutions in the UN Security Council that would have left open the possibility of UN sanctions, or even military intervention, against the Assad government.
By the end of Januaryit was reported by Reuters that over 5, civilians and protesters including armed militants had been killed by the Syrian army, security agents and militia Shabihawhile 1, people had been killed by "terrorist armed forces". On 10 JanuaryAssad gave a speech in which he maintained the uprising was engineered by foreign countries and proclaimed that "victory [was] near". He also said that the Arab Leagueby suspending Syria, revealed that it was no longer Arab.
However, Assad also said the country would not "close doors" to an Arab-brokered solution if "national sovereignty" was respected. He also said a referendum on a new constitution could be held in March. The referendum introduced a fourteen-year cumulative term limit for the president of Syria.
The referendum was pronounced meaningless by foreign nations including the U. On 15 Julythe International Committee of the Red Cross declared Syria to be in a state of civil war,  as the nationwide death toll for all sides was reported to have neared 20, On 6 JanuaryAssad, in his first major speech since June, said that the conflict in his country was due to "enemies" outside of Syria who would "go to Hell" and that they would "be taught a lesson".
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However, he said that he was still open to a political solution saying that failed attempts at a solution "does not mean we are not interested in a political solution. After the fall of four military bases in September which were the last government footholds in the Raqqa GovernorateAssad received significant criticism from his Alawite base of support.
I think Damascus will collapse at some point. Inseveral members of the Assad family died in Latakia under unclear circumstances. After a string of government defeats in northern and southern Syria, analysts noted growing government instability coupled with continued waning support for the Assad government among its core Alawite base of support, and that there were increasing reports of Assad relatives, Alawites, and businessmen fleeing Damascus for Latakia and foreign countries.
In early Septemberagainst the backdrop of reports that Russia was deploying troops in Syria ready for combat, Russian President Vladimir Putin said that while such talk was "premature", Russia was "already providing Syria with sufficiently serious help: with both equipment and training soldiers, with our weapons". In NovemberAssad reiterated that a diplomatic process to bring the country's civil war to an end could not begin while it was occupied by "terrorists", although it was considered by BBC News to be unclear whether he meant only ISIL or Western-supported rebels as well.
On 22 Januarythe Financial Timesciting anonymous "senior western intelligence officials", claimed that Russian general Igor Sergunthe director of GRUthe Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federationhad shortly before his sudden death on 3 January been sent to Damascus with a message from Vladimir Putin asking that President Assad step aside.
It was reported in December that Assad's forces had retaken half of rebel-held Aleppoending a 6-year stalemate in the city. Three years into a conflict that is estimated to have killed at leastpeople from both sides, much of the Syrian economy lies in ruins. As the violence has expanded and sanctions have been imposed, assets and infrastructure have been destroyed, economic output has fallen, and investors have fled the country.
Unemployment now exceeds 50 percent and half of the population lives below the poverty line This war economy - to which Western sanctions have inadvertently contributed - is creating incentives for some Syrians to prolong the conflict and making it harder to end it. A United Nations commissioned report by the Syrian Centre for Policy Research states that two-thirds of the Syrian population now lives in "extreme poverty".
Human Rights groups, such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty Internationalhave detailed how the Assad government's secret police allegedly tortured, imprisoned, and killed political opponents, and those who speak out against the government. InSyria banned face veils at universities. Foreign Policy magazine released an editorial on Assad's position in the wake of the protests:. During its decades of rule InHafez al-Assad, Bashar's father, seized power after rising through the ranks of the Syrian armed forces, during which time he established a network of loyal Alawites by installing them in key posts.
In fact, the military, ruling elite, and ruthless secret police are so intertwined that it is now impossible to separate the Assad government from the security establishment In this respect, the situation in Syria is to a certain degree comparable to Saddam Hussein 's strong Sunni minority rule in Iraq.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation has stated that at least 10 European citizens were tortured by the Assad government while detained during the Syrian Civil War, potentially leaving Assad open to prosecution by individual European countries for war crimes.
In a February interview with the BBCAssad described accusations that the Syrian Arab Air Force used barrel bombs as "childish", stating that his forces have never used these types of "barrel" bombs and responded with a joke about not using "cooking pots" either. Nadim Shehadithe director of The Fares Center for Eastern Mediterranean Studiesstated that "In the early s, Saddam Hussein was massacring his people and we were worried about the weapons inspectors," and claimed that "Assad did that too.
He kept us busy with chemical weapons when he massacred his people.
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In SeptemberFrance began an inquiry into Assad for crimes against humanitywith French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius stating "Faced with these crimes that offend the human conscience, this bureaucracy of horror, faced with this denial of the values of humanity, it is our responsibility to act against the impunity of the killers".
In Februaryhead of the UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria, Paulo Pinheiro, told reporters: "The mass scale of deaths of detainees suggests that the government of Syria is responsible for acts that amount to extermination as a crime against humanity.
The report also stated: "There are reasonable grounds to believe that high-ranking officers-including the heads of branches and directorates-commanding these detention facilities, those in charge of the military police, as well as their civilian superiors, knew of the vast number of deaths occurring in detention facilities Chris Smith called on the Obama administration to create a war crimes tribunal to investigate and prosecute violations "whether committed by the officials of the Government of Syria or other parties to the civil war".
In Aprilthere was a sarin chemical attack on Khan Sheikhoun that killed more than 80 people. In Aprilan alleged chemical attack occurred in Douma, prompting the U. Both Syria and Russia have refuted the involvement of the Syrian government at this time.
In JuneGermany's chief prosecutor issued an international arrest warrant for one of Assad's most senior military officials, Jamil Hassan.
Detention centers run by Air Force Intelligence are among the most notorious in Syria, and thousands are believed to have died because of torture or neglect.
Charges filed against Hassan claim he had command responsibility over the facilities and therefore knew of the abuse. The move against Hassan marked an important milestone of prosecutors trying to bring senior members of Assad's inner circle to trial for war crimes.
He added that Bashar al-Assad has done more than any other to destabilize the region by "murdering his own people" and that both Russia and the Syrian regime have shown no concern for the suffering of the Syrian people creating one of the "worst humanitarian tragedies in history". Assad opposed the invasion of Iraq despite a long-standing animosity between the Syrian and Iraqi governments. Assad used Syria's seat in one of the rotating positions on the United Nations Security Council to try to prevent the invasion of Iraq.
According to veteran U. Despite the historical differences between the two Ba'ath factions, al-Douri reportedly urged Saddam to open oil pipelines with Syria, building a financial relationship with the Assad family.
After the Invasion of Iraq, al-Douri allegedly fled to Damascus where he organised the National Command of the Islamic Resistance which co-ordinated major combat operations during the Iraqi insurgency.
S commander of the coalition forces in Iraq, George W. Casey Jr. Diplomatic relations with Egypt were re-established in under his rule. Following the election of Muslim Brotherhood politician Mohamed Morsi as the next Egyptian president, relations became extremely strained. The Muslim Brotherhood is a banned organisation and its membership is a capital offence in Syria.
Egypt severed all relations with Syria in June In Julythe two countries agreed to reopen the Egyptian consulate in Damascus and the Syrian consulate in Cairo.
In late-Novembersome Arab media outlets reported Egyptian pilots arrived in mid-November to Syria to help the Syrian government in its fight against the Islamic State and Al Nusra front.
Although Egypt has not been vocal in support for any sides of Syria's ongoing civil war, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi said in that his nation's priority is "supporting national armies", which he said included the Syrian Armed Forces. Egypt has also expressed great interest in rebuilding postwar Syria, with many Egyptian companies and businessmen discussing investment opportunities in Syria as well as participation in the reconstruction effort. Assad argued that Syria's gradual withdrawal of troops from Lebanon, beginning inwas a result of the assassination of Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri and ended in May Despite gaining re-election inAssad's position was considered by some to have been weakened by the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon following the Cedar Revolution in There has also been pressure from the U.
Interior Minister Bassam Abdul-Majeed stated that "Syria, which condemns this cowardly terrorist act, expresses condolences to the martyr family and to the Lebanese people.
In MayLebanese politician Michel Samaha was sentenced to four-and-a-half years in jail for his role in a terrorist bomb plot that he claimed Assad was aware of. The United States, the European Union, the March 14 Allianceand France accuse Assad of providing support to militant groups active against Israel and opposition political groups. The latter category would include most political parties other than HezbollahHamasand the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine.
In a speech about the Lebanon War in AugustAssad said that Hezbollah had "hoisted the banner of victory", hailing its actions as a "successful resistance". In AprilAssad told a Qatari newspaper that Syria and Israel had been discussing a peace treaty for a year. As well as the treaty, the future of the Golan Heights was being discussed. Assad was quoted in - livoniasend.com as telling the Qatari paper:. The US was the only party qualified to sponsor any direct talks, [Assad] told the paper, but added that the Bush administration "does not have the vision or will for the peace process.
It does not have anything. According to leaked American cablesAssad called Hamas an "uninvited guest" and said "If you want me to be effective and active, I have to have a relationship with all parties. Hamas is Muslim Brotherhood, but we have to deal with the reality of their presence," comparing Hamas to the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood which was crushed by his father, Hafez al-Assad.
He also said Hamas would disappear if peace was brought to the Middle East. Assad has indicated that the peace treaty that he envisions would not be the same kind of peace treaty Israel has with Egypt, where there is a legal border crossing and open trade. In a interview with Charlie RoseAssad said: "There is a big difference between talking about a peace treaty and peace.
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A peace treaty is like a permanent ceasefire. There's no war, maybe you have an embassy, but you actually won't have trade, you won't have normal relations because people will not be sympathetic to this relation as long as they are sympathetic with the Palestinians: half a million who live in Syria and half a million in Lebanon and another few millions in other Arab countries. During the visit of Pope John Paul II to Syria inAssad requested an apology to Muslims for the Crusades and criticised Israeli treatment of Palestinians, stating that "territories in Lebanon, the Golan and Palestine have been occupied by those who killed the principle of equality when they claimed that God created a people distinguished above all other peoples ".
Semites are a race and [Syrians] not only belong to this race, but are its core. Judaism, on the other hand, is a religion which can be attributed to all races. When I say Israel carries out killings, it's the reality: Israel tortures Palestinians. I didn't speak about Jews," and criticised Western media outlets for misinterpreting his comments.
Nov 10, If your tournament is not listed on the livoniasend.com website, your school is not cleared by the AHSAA to participate in the tournament. If you have a tournament listed on your schedule in any sport, the tournament must have all the participants listed and your principal must certify it before it becomes a sanctioned tournament. Get the latest Alabama Local News, Sports News & US breaking News. View daily AL weather ates, watch videos and photos, join the discussion in forums. Find more news articles and stories online. Related searches all that add all that ass like that all that ass the orgy all that ass ebony all that ass 14 that ass all ass big black ass ebony all that ass all that as all that ass bbw all that booty all that azz all dat azz too much ass all black bbw big booty ebony all that ass bbc she got ass in .
In FebruaryAssad backed an initiative to restore ten synagogues in Syria, which had a Jewish community numbering 30, inbut only Jews by Assad met with U. In response to Executive Order which mandated refugees from Syria be indefinitely suspended from being able to resettle in the United States, Assad appeared to defend the measure, stating "It's against the terrorists that would infiltrate some of the immigrants to the West I think the aim of Trump is to prevent those people from coming," adding that it was "not against the Syrian people".
North Korea has allegedly aided Syria in developing and enhancing a ballistic missiles programme. Inthe United Nations exposed North Korea for their facilitation of Syria's development of chemical weapons. According to a report by U.
Additionally, DPRK missile technicians had been seen inside various Syrian chemical weapons facilities. This series of about 40 unreported shipments between North Korea and Syria, on which were the chemical weapons materials as well as prohibited ballistic missile parts, is said to have occurred throughout - InAssad condemned the September 11 attacks.
He was quoted as saying, "Is there really an entity called al-Qaeda? Was it in Afghanistan? Does it exist now? This is illogical. Assad's relationship with al-Qaeda and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant has been subject to much attention. Injournalist and terrorism expert Peter R. Neumann maintained, citing Syrian records captured by the U.
During the Iraq Warthe Assad government was accused of training jihadis and facilitating their passage into Iraq, with these infiltration routes remaining active until the Syrian Civil War ; US General Jack Keane has stated that "Al Qaeda fighters who are back in Syria, I am confident, they are relying on much they learned in moving through Syria into Iraq for more than five years when they were waging war against the U.
Secretary of State John Kerry claimed that the Assad government has tactically avoided ISIS forces in order to weaken "moderate opposition" such as the Free Syrian Armyas well as "purposely ceding some territory to them [ISIS] in order to make them more of a problem so he can make the argument that he is somehow the protector against them".
He concluded: "Attempting to prove an ISIS-regime conspiracy without any conclusive evidence is unhelpful, because it draws attention away from the real reasons why ISIS grew and gained such prominence: namely, rebel groups tolerated ISIS. In OctoberU. Vice President Joe Biden stated that TurkeySaudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates had "poured hundreds of millions of dollars and tens of thousands of tons of weapons into anyone who would fight against Al-Assad, except that the people who were being supplied were al-Nusraand al Qaeda, and the extremist elements of jihadis coming from other parts of the world.
Inthe al-Nusra Frontal-Qaeda 's Syrian affiliate, issued a bounty worth millions of dollars for the killing of Assad. Assad condemned the November Paris attacksbut added that France's support for Syrian rebel groups had contributed to the spread of terrorism, and rejected sharing intelligence on terrorist threats with French authorities unless France altered its foreign policy on Syria.
During the Civil War, the Druze in Syria have primarily sought to remain neutral, "seeking to stay out of the conflict", while according to others over half support the Assad government despite its relative weakness in Druze areas. It has been reported at various stages of the Syrian Civil War that other religious minorities such as the Alawites and Christians in Syria favour the Assad government because of its secularism, however opposition exists among Assyrian Christians who have claimed that the Assad government seeks to use them as "puppets" and deny their distinct ethnicity, which is non-Arab.
Inthe Christian Syriac Military Councilthe largest Christian organization in Syria, allied with the Free Syrian Army opposed to Assad, joining other Syrian Christian militias such as the Sutoro who had joined the Syrian opposition against the Assad government. In JuneAssad won a disputed presidential election held in government-controlled areas and ignored in opposition-held areas and Kurdish areas governed by the Democratic Union Party with Turnout was estimated to be Assad's support from the right-wing has mostly been from the far-rightboth before and during the Syrian Civil War.
David Duke hosted a televised speech on Syrian national television in Nick Griffinthe former leader of the British National Partywas chosen by the Assad government to represent the UK as an ambassador and at government-held conferences; Griffin has been an official guest of the Syrian government three times since the beginning of the Civil War.
Left-wing support for Assad has been split since the start of the Syrian Civil War; the Assad government has been accused of cynically manipulating sectarian identity and anti-imperialism to continue its worst activities.
It is the fortress of the remaining dignity of the Arabs," and a "breath of fresh air". Hadash has expressed support for the Government of Bashar al-Assad. President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko has expressed confidence that Syria will eliminate the current crisis and continue under the leadership of President al-Assad "the fight against terrorism and foreign interference in its internal affairs".
At the outset of the Syrian Civil War, Syrian government networks were hacked by the group Anonymousrevealing that an ex- Al Jazeera journalist had been hired to advise Assad on how to manipulate the public opinion of the United States. Among the advice was the suggestion to compare the popular uprising against the regime to the Occupy Wall Street protests. After the Syrian Civil War began, the Assads started a social media campaign which included building a presence on Facebook, YouTube, and most notably Instagram.
In October27, photographs depicting torture committed by the Assad government were put on display at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
In Novemberthe Quilliam Foundation reported that a propaganda campaign, which they claimed had the "full backing of Assad", spread false reports about the deaths of Western-born jihadists in order to deflect attention from the government's alleged war crimes. Using a picture of a Chechen fighter from the Second Chechen Warpro-Assad media reports disseminated to Western media outlets, leading them to publish a false story regarding the death of a non-existent British jihadist.
InRussia intervened in the Syrian Civil War in support of Assad, and on 21 OctoberAssad flew to Moscow and met with Russian president Vladimir Putin, who said regarding the civil war: "this decision can be made only by the Syrian people. Syria is a friendly country.
And we are ready to support it not only militarily but politically as well. Assad speaks fluent English and basic conversational French, having studied at the Franco-Arab al-Hurriyah school in Damascus. Their daughter Zein was born infollowed by their second son Karim in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. President of Syria. In this Arabic namethe family name is al-Assad. Hafez b. Further information: Al-Assad family.
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Syrian Arab Republic. Human rights. People's Council Speaker : H. Governorates Districts. Recent elections Presidential: Parliamentary: Popular Front for Change and Liberation. Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party Syrian branch.
Foreign relations. Other countries Atlas.
Amr ibn al-As
See also: Russian involvement in the Syrian Civil War. See also: Economy of Syria. See also: Human rights in Syria. See also: Syrian occupation of Lebanon and Lebanon-Syria relations. See also: North Korea-Syria relations. Further information: Sectarianism and minorities in the Syrian Civil War. Retrieved 13 November Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 21 October Dictators at War and Peace. Cornell University Press. Authoritarian Apprehensions.
University of Chicago Press. International Affairs. The Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 13 March BBC News. - livoniasend.com. Retrieved 9 November The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 17 December Retrieved 9 June Al Jazeera.
Retrieved 3 September The Times of India. Retrieved 8 June International Crisis Group. Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 4 October Retrieved 19 April Archived from the original on 12 May Retrieved 14 March Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 21 December The Syrian president maintained he was fighting to preserve his country and criticized the West for intervening.
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